Law Enforcement Test

Anybody who is already in the police force knows that it is passing a law enforcement test that will welcome you into the profession. In fact, it is one of the most in demand and most important jobs in world so it is only fair to give rigorous tests that will separate the good from the best. A good law enforcement test helps agencies hire only the best and the most fit to carry on the duties of law enforcement. This is used by counties, cities and states nationwide when hiring people to fill in the ranks of their police force. The written part of the law enforcement test consists of punctuation, spelling, grammatical and writing skills. An aspiring police officer must also pass the oral exam given by a panel of interviewers usually made up of three to five police officers. Some of the subjects that you will be tested on are reading and understanding comprehension, memory recall, written and oral communication skills, judgment, reasoning and analytical skills and understanding oral information. For one to pass the law enforcement test, he or she must condition the mind as if they are already a police officer. Confidence is also vital in making it since this is a trait required from police officers, especially in apprehending lawless elements. One has to be abreast with the law, judicial processes and other important knowledge that an officer must posses. During the oral interview, it is important that you are presentable and appear in a business suit. Stay calm and focused during the interview process. Other areas that you will be tested will be memory recall, math, judgment and reasoning directional map reading, and reading comprehension. You must also pass the psychological test, polygraph test, physical assessment test, oral board review, and background check. To be prepared for the law enforcement test, it is advised that you undergo police practice tests to polish your communication skills. Know what you are getting yourself into since a career in law enforcement is coupled with a higher calling of responsibility. It s also one of the most coveted professions in the world so expect that the competition will be tougher as the years go by. Do not leave your future in law enforcement entirely up to chance. Improve your opportunities in becoming a police officer by taking practice tests, studying hard and training your mind to become more attentive to details. Although being academically equipped is a good thing, it is not a guarantee that you will pass the law enforcement test. Having a good sense, street smarts and great instinct is an added bonus for you as well. So what are you waiting for? Brush up on your skills and become part of one of the elite professions in the world. Pass the law enforcement test with ease by undergoing practice tests, researching on the internet for additional tips and looking for the best study guide while preparing for it. Remember, it is still you who will make the difference so invest wisely when it comes to your time and study habits.

History of Law Enforcement

Though the idea of defending oneself physically has been around since nearly the dawn of time, organized law enforcement is a relatively new idea. As self defense evolved, it became defined by several disciplined forms, such as martial arts. Though it is an excellent idea for everyone to be trained in some form of physical self defense, and to carry self defense products like stun guns or pepper spray to defend themselves against any violent or dangerous situation, of course today there are also organized law enforcement agencies which exist to make self defense less necessary. Though it is still imperative to do what you can to protect yourself, various organizations, from a neighborhood watch to a police officer who frequently patrols your neighborhood, can keep your home and your family safe. The first law enforcement agencies existed not so much to protect citizens from criminals but to maintain leadership. Forces to maintain the status quo existed as far back as ancient Egypt, when pharaohs had their own personal staff of soldiers. Nearly any society throughout history with a military hierarchy has had some form of law enforcement agency. The Roman Empire is frequently noted for its effective yet brutal form of law enforcement. In Europe, law enforcement policies can be traced back to more than a millennium ago. London is thought to be the first city to hire paid law enforcement officers, back in 1663. These officers were mainly meant to find and detain criminals after the fact. In 1800, Glasgow, Scotland, established the first professional police department tasked with preventive policing. The first civil (rather than military) police force was established in the United Kingdom by Parliament in 1829. This model is used by numerous countries, including the United States, to the present day. Throughout the mid-1800s, several police departments were founded around the world. Within the United States, the early years can be described as somewhat lawless. Stronger members of the communities were responsible for policing themselves and their neighbors, though there was no police structure in place. Once the colonists were settled in, the task of maintaining order fell to Justices of the Peace, who were responsible for dealing with criminal elements. As the towns and cities of the New World grew, it became clear that this system was simply not organized enough. Organized law enforcement can be traced back to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when night watch forces were established throughout the colonies. Philadelphia finally organized an independent police squad in 1833, policing the area 24/7. Another early full-time police force in the United States was the Boston Police Department, established in 1839. New York’s police force was established in 1844. Though these organizations worked well in the relatively well established Eastern cities, in the frontier towns, a sheriff system developed. This system, also inherited from England, placed a sheriff selected by the local population in charge of law enforcement. Relatively unregulated in early times, the sheriff system still exists to this day, though on a much more formal basis. Today, law enforcement agencies worldwide are highly specialized organizations with extensive training to prepare officers for an astounding variety of situations. Still, they can’t be there for all situations, which is why it is important to protect yourself with a stun gun, baton, or pepper spray canister.

Regulate The Internet!

With the advent of Web 2.0 and UGC (User-generated Content), the Internet has completed its transformation into an anarchic and lawless ochlocracy (mob-rule). The Internet is a mass medium and like all media it must be regulated. The laws that apply offline must and, in due time, as legislators are exposed to the less savory aspects of the Web, will apply online.

Inevitably, the legal situation varies across countries and continents. Internet penetration has reached different levels at different times in different places. Thus, the following observations and recommendations are not universally valid or applicable. In some locales, various aspects of cyberspace have been tackled by governments and legislatures, albeit rarely fully and satisfactorily. In others, the field is wide open and the Internet resembles the Wild West at its worst moments.

Laws and regulations passed and intermittently enforced against cybercrime attempt to prevent and constrain only a few obviously illegal acts. Spammers, spyware purveyors, child pornographers, and terrorists are the blatant tip of a much subtler iceberg of malicious and pernicious misconduct.

These are the minimal, initial steps that have to be taken in order to forestall a meltdown of this indispensable utility, the Internet:

1. Slander, Libel, and Defamation vs. Free Speech

The legal status of owners, editors, administrators, Webmasters and moderators of Websites, bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, online news sources, search engines and portals, and blogging communities should be equated to that of publishers and journalists in the print and electronic media. Consequently, they should be held liable to civil damages and to criminal charges arising from actionable libel and defamation posted on their properties if they don’t act promptly to comprehensively remedy said libel and defamation.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and hosting services should be obligated to disclose to law enforcement agencies and/or to plaintiffs the full personal data of anyone who break the law by publishing or sending libelous, slanderous, defamatory, harassing, or threatening content on or via the Internet.

2. Privacy

The right to privacy of computer users should be embedded in consumer protection laws, allowing for criminal penalties to be imposed on the perpetrators of privacy breaches and for civil damages to the victims.

Individuals and firms who accumulate personal data of suppliers, employees, customers and users or who gain access to them in the normal course of business should be obliged to protect and safeguard such information and to promptly notify those potentially affected of any incident involving the compromise of their personal data. Failure to act reasonably diligently to prevent identity theft should become a criminal offense.

Exceptions should be made only for law enforcement needs and even then only pursuant to warrants issued by especially-designated courts (the equivalent of FISA-mandated courts in the USA).

3. Copyright and Intellectual Property

Intellectual property laws should be considerably relaxed and fair use provisions considerably expanded to accommodate and reflect the nature, possibilities, and constraints of digital renditions of information.

Owners, editors, administrators, Webmasters and moderators of Websites, bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, online news sources, search engines and portals, and blogging communities should be held liable to civil damages and to criminal charges arising from infringements of copyrights and other intellectual property rights posted on or via their properties if they don’t act promptly to comprehensively remedy said infringements.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and hosting services should be obligated to disclose to law enforcement agencies and/or to plaintiffs the full personal data of anyone who break the law by violating copyrights and other intellectual property rights on or via the Internet.

4. Anonymity

Anonymous or pseudonymous publishing of libelous, slanderous, defamatory, harassing, or threatening content on the Internet – including via e-mail, instant messaging, mashups, or wikis – should be explicitly and specifically made illegal.

Owners, editors, administrators, Webmasters, and moderators of Websites, bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, online news sources, search engines and portals, and blogging communities should be made responsible to obtain the full names and countries of domicile of registered users, posters, contributors, and participants. Upon the first request of an injured party or a law enforcement agency, they should be obligated to make these personal data public in conjunction with libelous, slanderous, defamatory, harassing, or threatening content published.

Providing false personal data to owners, editors, administrators, and moderators of bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, online news sources, and blogging communities should be made a criminal offense as well as give rise to civil damages.

Providing false personal data or remaining anonymous while sending or posting libelous, slanderous, defamatory, harassing, or threatening correspondence (for instance, via e-mail) should be made a criminal offense as well as give rise to civil damages.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and hosting services should be obligated to disclose to law enforcement agencies and/or to plaintiffs the full personal data of anyone who break the law by anonymously or pseudonymously publishing or sending libelous, slanderous, defamatory, harassing, or threatening content on or via the Internet.

5. Licensing and Anti-trust

All licensing requirements, content laws, and regulatory supervision that now apply to the print and electronic media should apply to Websites, bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, search engines and portals, online news sources, and blogging communities. The Internet should be subjected to supervision and regulation by the relevant governmental oversight agencies (e.g., in the USA: FCC, FTC, SEC, and others).

Competition (anti-trust) laws and regulations shall be extended to apply to the Internet or, where they are already applicable, shall be enforced to ensure search neutrality, equal access to information, equal access to computing platforms, and fair competition.

6. Truth in Advertising and Misrepresentations

The owners, editors, administrators, Webmasters, and moderators of Websites, bulletin boards, forums, boards, groups, lists, wikis, UGC Websites, online news sources, search engines and portals, and blogging communities should have to truthfully describe the nature of their Internet properties and all other pertinent information items that may be required by a reasonable user – including their ownership structure, privacy policies, sources of information, affiliations, potential and actual conflicts of interest, outstanding lawsuits, risks associated with making use of their Internet properties and other pertinent disclosures.

Misrepresentations should be explicitly and specifically outlawed and carry both criminal penalties and civil liabilities.

It is not too late to restore a semblance of lawfulness to the Internet. True, the Web has been hijacked by stalkers, criminals, big business, and scammers. Even honest users are clueless as to what is and is not allowed. As far as the overwhelming majority of surfers are concerned, voluntary codes of conduct and the much-vaunted Netiquette have utterly failed to render cyberspace safe or, indeed, serviceable. The invisible hand of the market is, indeed, nowhere to be seen.

It is time for legislators and regulators to step in. Even a moderate dose of legislation and the willingness not to succumb to either to mob or to business pressures will go a long way towards restoring the Internet to its original purpose: the civilized and lawful – not to mention pleasurable – exchange of information and opinion over computer networks.

Understanding Dwi

Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) is the title of classification used to identify a drunk driving within the overall category known as Driving Under the Influence (DUI). Operating Under the Influence (OUI) and Operating a Motor Vehicle Intoxicated (OMVI) are the two other titles that fall within the DUI category. While laws specific to DWI do vary from state to state, a driver is generally in violation of DWI laws if they are unable to safely operate their vehicle due to intoxication. Intoxication is determined through set standards for Blood-Alcohol Concentration (BAC), Field Sobriety, and Implied Consent Laws.

After being stopped by a law enforcement agent for suspected DWI, it is up to the agents discretion on how they will determine whether you are intoxicated enough to classify as DWI. Chemical tests involving the use of a Breathalyzer device allow the law enforcement agent to determine whether or not your BAC is above or below the legal limit for the state you are currently in. As stated before, many factors depend on the state the offense has taken place in. Some states have “per se” laws that allow for a breathalyzer returning results of a BAC at or above the state limit to be enough evidence to determining that you are intoxicated. Nationwide, Zero Tolerance laws have been passed that have a similar standpoint, however these pertain to those under the legal drinking age of 21 if their breathalyzer results are .02 BAC or higher, and can even be considered anything higher than 0.0 BAC depending on the state.

If the “per se” laws do not apply in the specific situation, the law enforcement agent may determine DWI through a field sobriety test. This often involves the driver to successfully complete a series of tasks that the agent has requested. Examples of tests an agent may request are: walking heel to toe in a straight line, recitation of the alphabet backwards, and horizontal gaze nystagmus test. It is uncommon to find an agent performing just a field sobriety test in a situation involving a suspected DWI.

All drivers have essentially agreed to implied consent laws by registering for their driver’s license. What this means for a driver involved in a possible DWI suspicion is that they are required to submit to a requested for of chemical testing when the DWI accusations have been levied. If the driver refuses to submit to chemical testing they will be heavily penalized as refusal carries harsher punishment than failure of the specific test or even amplify the penalties if the DWI conviction occurs. At a minimum, those refusing such tests will have their license suspended for six months to one year.

At the time when a Driving While Intoxicated case makes its way to a court of law, the arresting law enforcement agent will provide an eye witness account of your actions while driving before you had been pulled over. This information coupled with the negative results from any of the standards set above will often result in a conviction for DWI. While it is never wise to drunk drive, each state does have their own specific standards that you should be fully aware of before getting behind the wheel of a car if you have even had one drink. It is your responsibility as a driver to know the laws pertaining to the road, especially when impairment may be involved.

A Career In Law Enforcement

If you appreciate upholding the law and helping others, a career in law enforcement may be for you. However, before you jump into the Los Angeles police school, or any other around the country, it is smart to know what you are committing your time and effort to. You should know what to expect from a career in law enforcement and what will be expected of you. Only then can you really decide if it is the right choice for your own life and career.

The Job Description

The job of a police officer is a challenging one, and what you do will vary from day to day. Depending on your community and its needs, as well as your abilities, you may be involved with the following duties:

• Patrol areas on foot, bicycle, motorcycle, or car, looking out for crime of any type.

• Respond to calls for assistance from the public made to the emergency dispatch center.

• Conduct initial investigations, take statements, and fill out paperwork for incidents.

• Interview suspects, witnesses, and victims.

• Look for traffic violations and hand out citations or give instructions/warnings.

• Serve subpoenas and warrants.

• Book and transport prisoners.

• Testify in court as necessary.

This is not a 9 to 5 job; police officers work odd hours on an irregular schedule to meet the needs of the community they work in. The job can often require being in a dangerous position and needing to make important decisions quickly.

The Perfect Candidate

Some people are better suited for police work than others. Police departments take only the best of all those who apply, so you need to be sure that you are a great candidate if you want to be successful. There are very specific requirements for age, mental health, physical health, and criminal background that must be met before you will even be considered. Research the basic requirements for the department you want to work for before you actually apply.

A good candidate should be able to handle a position of authority and all the responsibilities that accompany that position. They must be able to be courteous to the public that they serve, while also being firm with those who need the extra direction from authority. They must be able to handle difficult or even dangerous situations with a calm and sound mind. A police officer must have a dedication and passion for what they do and must care for the public that they serve.

The best candidate must excel in the training and use of firearms and other defense measures. They must keep fit to handle the physical exertions of the job. They must understand the law thoroughly, as it is their responsibility to uphold it. They should know at least the basics of first aid, as they may be the first one on a scene where someone is injured. They must know how to communicate well with others in difficult circumstances, because they serve as a face for the department they work for.

The Right Career Choice for You

The application and training process to become a police officer is not a short or easy one. If you are simply looking for an easy job to pay the bills, this is not for you! If you are, however, looking to start in a career where you can serve and protect others, being a police officer is the perfect choice for you.
You may consider interviewing and shadowing a police officer to help you really decide if it is a course you would like to pursue. Once you decide that you do want to be a part of this great cause, you can apply to a place like the Los Angeles Police School and start the next great phase of your life.

Injured In California By A Drunk Driver? Seek The Advice Of A Reputable Lawyer

One of the most serious problems facing California’s law enforcement agencies is drunk driving. Even though this state has some of the strictest laws in force concerning those who drink and drive, the problem continues to increase. If you or someone you love has been injured or even killed by someone who was intoxicated, you need to seek advice from a skilled lawyer who is knowledgeable in personal injury and wrongful death.

Drunk driving is one of the leading causes of accidents in the United States, and California enforces some of the strictest laws of all the states to punish drunk drivers. According to state laws, if you have been injured because of a driver who is intoxicated, that driver can be held responsible for those injuries.

Because driving while intoxicated is against the law, accident victims may be able to receive punitive damages in addition to payment for lost wages, pain and suffering, and medical bills. In auto accident cases caused by drunk drivers, the claim can be much more complex than any other type of accident. This is why it is crucial to have a lawyer who will conduct a thorough investigation and collect the evidence needed to prove that the driver who caused your injuries was intoxicated.

In some cases, victims of drunk drivers can hold third parties responsible as well as the driver. These would include the business that sold the alcohol to the individual, such as bars, restaurants and taverns. Passengers who travel with the driver responsible for your injuries can also be held responsible if they aided and abetted the driver in becoming intoxicated.

Although many attempts have been made to crack down on this problem, the incidence of drunk driving still continues to rise. Education programs have been placed in high schools, warning teenagers of the risk of injury or death to themselves or others when they take the risk of drinking and driving.

In rare instances, employers may be held responsible for the actions of an intoxicated employee who causes an accident. For example, work related events and parties at which alcohol is involved can be a factor. Rarely are employers held responsible unless the driver was driving a company car at the time of the accident.

If death results from a drunk driving accident, the responsibility falls upon the family to file a wrongful death suit. The settlement from this type of suit can cover funeral expenses as well as the costs of emergency or hospital expenses if they were incurred. Hiring the best lawyer available who is experienced in this kind of tragedy will enable you get your claim settled as fast as possible.

To learn all you need to know about your rights, contact a lawyer who is practiced in personal injury and wrongful death suits. Drunk driving kills people and changes lives forever – get the compensation you and your family deserve.

Accident Legal Help


No one wants to face an accident or become an accident victim. Even after enough efforts to Accident Avoidance and accident prevention, most of us, at some point in our lives, face accident injury. Whether you are a victim or a witness of an accident, you should not keep quite. One must claim for accident compensation. An accident attorney can provide the best legal help and accident advice in getting you accident injury claims and assert your rights.

There are different aspects of an accident. You can be the victim in the accident, your relative, a friend could be a victim, or you can be the witness of an accident. In all the cases, one must take necessary steps to protect ones legal rights and get accident compensation. Law on accidents has different provisions that safeguard the interests of the sufferers in accidents.

Steps to be taken when an accident occur

In case you are a victim of an accident, there are chances that you can have accident injuries. You don’t have to feel helpless. When you experience or witness an accident, fill up an Accident report form. Recent accidents records suggest the accidents rates in the recent years have gone up.

Get medical help from a doctor. Tell the doctor clearly if you have any headache, loss of memory, blood in your ear or nose, disorientation, nausea or other physical and mental disorders. There are cases in which many people had severe internal injury but unknowingly they don’t reveal to the doctors which result in serious problems in the long run. The most common injury because of accident is Brain Injury. After the medical attention has been given, you should sue the accused driver or the one responsible for the accident. .

You should take help from an accident lawyer. It is always a wise option to seek help of an accident attorney for accident settlement issues. An expert accident attorney can guide you and assist you in filing an accident lawsuit. Many accident law firms provide assistance in getting you accident compensation for any type accident.

In case you are a witness, the first thing that you should to do is inform the accident investigators and call the ambulance for the accident victim. Do work together with the accessible authorities who come to the scene. Take precautions to safe guard your vehicle from any other loss. Consider moving it out of the traffic. Further try to record every thing what every possible on the scene. Your notes should carry the details of accident, recognition of the autos and people available, and the names and badge numbers of all urgent situation personnel. Take pictures in case possible. Insist on breath tests if you suspect it is a case of drunk driving.

If your family member or your near one is the accident victim, then your responsibilities increase. Your first priority is to give the accident victim the right medical care at the right time. When a person is injured, we should never delay in giving medical care. Once the medical care is given, then you should put a legal action to the accused driver. For this, you have to gather some information about the other driver, which includes the driver’s name, address, driver’s license number and accident insurance information. Besides this, you should try gathering information about the witnesses of the accident. Know the condition of the road where the accident occurred.

If you are a witness of an accident, do not run away from the scene. Instead, try to help in some or the other way especially if the accident results into some kind of injury. Stay at the scene until police arrive and do the investigation. Fill up an accident report form t to report the accident. Leave only when you have been told to leave.

• Accident Settlement

Automobile accidents, personal injury accidents, slip and fall incidents, bike accident, bus accident, train accident, airplane accident, sea world accident, school bus accident, accident at work and industrial accidents occur every day. Those accidents that result in personal injury or property damage often end up in court as a lawsuit, and accident settlements can run from a few thousand dollars to millions of dollars.

The purpose of an accident settlement is to compensate the victim for his or her pain and suffering, to replace property damaged in the accident, and to cover medical expenses, lost wages, physical therapy and other services. While victims wait for accident settlements to be reached, many take advantage of funding companies to receive a accident lawsuit cash advance against the accident settlement.

• What to do in case of a hit and run accident:

1. An altercation with the “suspect” may result in far more serious problems.
2. If at all possible, get the license plate number of the vehicle.
3. Call 911 immediately. Provide the police with as much accident information as you can about the other driver. Make, model, color of car, physical description of the driver if you are able to see them, and most importantly, the direction they are traveling. The police may issue a notice to nearby towns to pursue the suspect vehicle and also send a unit to assist you.
4. Talk with as many witnesses as you can. Make sure you ask for their name, address, and telephone number and ask them (beg if you must) to please wait for the police to arrive so that they can give a statement while their memories are fresh.
5. Protect the accident scene. Even the smallest piece of evidence could carry a “signature” of the other driver.

• Auto accident

Each year, thousands of people are involved in traffic accidents during the Memorial Day Weekend. If you are one of these unfortunate people, will you know what to do in the aftermath of a collision? How you react can prevent further injuries, reduce costs and accelerate the clean-up and repair process.

The Consumer Protection Association of America is increasing public awareness on this subject by designating the week before Memorial Day “National Driver Education Week.” The Association has developed a list of suggestions to help drivers anticipate what they need to know about dealing with an accident.

“These tips can make a big difference in everything from protecting yourself and your passengers to ensuring that you won’t be without a car while yours is in the shop,” said Dr. Ray Bruce, president of the association.

Over 6.3 million police-reported motor vehicle crashes occurred in the United States in 1998. Almost one-third of these accidents resulted in injury. In 2001, nearly 42,000 people died on America’s roadways. Clearly, accidents are a part of life in America.

So, if you are involved in a traffic collision, try to remain calm, and follow these steps:

• Action Plan to Deal with Accidents:

1. Keep an Emergency Kit in Your Glove Compartment. Drivers should carry a cell phone, as well as pen and paper for taking notes, a disposable camera to take photos of the vehicles at the scene, and a card with information about medical allergies or conditions that may require special attention if there are serious injuries. Also, keep a list of contact numbers for law enforcement agencies handy. Drivers can keep this free fill-in-the-blanks accident information form in their glove compartment.

2. Keep Safety First. Drivers involved in minor accidents injuries with no serious injuries should move cars to the side of the road and out of the way of oncoming traffic. Leaving cars parked in the middle of the road or busy intersection can result in additional accidents and injuries. If a car cannot be moved, drivers and passengers should remain in the cars with seatbelts fastened for everyone’s safety until help arrives. Make sure to turn on hazard lights and set out cones, flares or warning triangles if possible.

3. Insurance and claims. After the accident, exchange the following information: name, address, phone number, insurance company, policy number, driver license number and license plate number for the driver and the owner of each vehicle. If the driver’s name is different from the name of the insured, establish what the relationship is and take down the name and address for each individual. Also make a written description of each car, including year, make, model and color — and the exact location of the collision and how it happened. Finally, be polite but don’t tell the other drivers or the police that the accident was your fault, even if you think it was.

4. Accident information. Use your camera to document the accident damage to all the vehicles. Keep in mind that you want your photos to show the overall context of the accident so that you can make your case to a claims adjuster. If there were witnesses, try to get their contact information; they may be able to help you if the other drivers dispute your version of what happened.

5. File An Accident Report. Although law enforcement officers in many locations may not respond to accidents unless there are injuries, drivers should file a state vehicle accident report, which is available at police stations and often on the Department of Motor Vehicles Web site as a downloadable file. A police report often helps insurance companies speed up the claims process.

6. Know What Your Accident Insurance Covers. The whole insurance process will be easier following your accident if you know the details of your coverage. For example, don’t wait until after an accident to find out that your policy doesn’t automatically cover costs for towing or a replacement rental car. Generally, for only a dollar or two extra each month, you can add coverage for rental car reimbursement, which provides a rental car for little or no money while your car is in the repair shop or if it is stolen. Check your policy for specifics.

The final question in dealing with an accident is usually who will pay for the damages? If the accident was minor, you and the other drivers may decide to handle the damages yourselves without the involvement of an insurance company. But this isn’t always the best idea, for several reasons.

While the other driver may agree to pay for the damage to your car on the day of the accident, he may see the repair bills and decide it’s too high. At this point, time has passed and your insurance company will have more difficulty piecing together the evidence if you file a claim.

Also, keep in mind that you have no way of knowing whether another driver will change his mind and report the accident to his insurance company. He may even claim injuries that weren’t apparent at the scene of the accident. This means that your insurance company may end up paying him a hefty settlement, or worse yet, you could be dragged into a lawsuit. So make sure that your company has your version of what happened and check your policy — if the damages paid out by your insurance company are below a certain amount, the accident may not be considered chargeable. And you will avoid the penalty of a premium hike.

Auto accidents take a tremendous toll on everyone involved, both financially and emotionally. If you’re one of the lucky ones who have thus far avoided a serious accident, hopefully the tips on prevention will help keep it that way. The chances are high, though, that at some point you will be involved in a minor accident. Just keep your head and make safety your primary concern. You’ll have plenty of time to deal with the consequences later.

The Ins and Outs of Legal Translation

What is a Legal Translation?

A legal translation is any translation that falls under the purview of the judicial system.
There are many types of documents that are required by the civil and criminal justice systems. In addition, there are documents that are not legal in nature, but are to be used as evidence. Translations of such documents are not usually considered “legal translation,” but need to be treated as such.

Examples of Legal Translation

The number of examples is virtually endless for the various types of documents that would normally not be a legal translation but under certain circumstances can become one by necessity.

A few examples of the more common documents that fall under legal translation are passports, immigration documents, marriage certificates, death certificates, birth certificates, last wills and testaments, powers of attorney, evidentiary recordings of phone calls, police interviews, court documents, contracts, complaints, judgments, summons, legal proceedings, trusts, partnership deeds, Real estate titles or leases papers, permits, insurance policies, affidavits, judgments, adoption papers, sales contracts, trademarks and copyrights, service agreements, escrow instructions, distribution agreements or arbitration documents.

There are far more but these are just a few examples.

When is Legal Translation Necessary?

Legal translation should be performed whenever needed for any given document or recording that is to be used by the courts or potentially may be used for legal matters. If, for instance, you have adopted a child from another country or given birth to a child while in another country, you will need to have the birth certificate, adoption papers, and other documents translated. There will be times throughout your child’s life in which his birth certificate will be required and if it is in another language it will have to be accompanied by a notarized translation.

You do not have to be embroiled in legal papers to your ears to get a translation done. It is always best to have all of your paperwork in the language of the local judicial system. Basically, having them done ahead of time reduces the stress of having it done on the fly should an issue arise, and can also clear up such matters far more quickly.

Who Can Perform Legal Translation?

Legal translation is not something that you can trust to just anyone. However, in the United States there are no required certifications or licensure for translators. There are however, voluntary certifications offered by organizations like the American Translators Association and the National Association of Judiciary Interpreters & Translators. These organizations require the translator to pass rigorous exams and to keep current by earning continuing education credits. Some translators haven’t taken the steps to be certified but have a relevant degree such as law or legal studies. Others may also have experience working as paralegals or other relevant careers. When choosing a legal transcription provider you may ask what kind of background they require of their translators before you make a decision.

Making Legal Translation Official

Professional translation agencies will also have the ability to certify and/or notarize their translations to give them full legal enforcement. Some companies will make a distinction between what they considered certified and notarized while other agencies will not. Those that do will define a certified translation as one that has a document accompanying it attesting to its accuracy or validity, but is not notarized. Other agencies notarize all certificates of accuracy.

Importance of Legal Instruments and How to Obtain Them

Legal instruments are used for any type of legal executions or proceedings. Such instruments are helpful for people who are involved in legal transactions. These instruments express a legally enforceable act or process. In fact, these instruments represent contractual duty, obligation or right. Examples include an affidavit, deed, power of attorney, certificate, bond, contract, will, legislative act forms, etc. These are perfectly legal and can help in legal proceedings, formal legal agreements, formal legal acts or any type of transactions.

Such legal instruments are supported by the local or regional governments and can be obtained from any public notary. Only an authorized person can help in authorizing legal instruments such as affidavit forms, deed, power of attorney, certificate, bond or a contract. It not only includes statements (of oath) from the people involved in the process of transaction, but also guarantees the written statement.

There are different types of legal instruments available like:


Deed forms are the important documents that are legal and can be related to any legal matter or transaction. Mainly, it is used to transfer real property amongst buyers and sellers. The main purpose of deeds is to assign or convey or delegate the property. It is primarily used at the time of real estate transactions. In fact, each and every real estate transaction needs legal deeds to accomplish the process.
For most people, deeds are only used in real estate transactions, which is particularly true. It can be seen in land contracts, purchase agreements, sale agreements, in the documents of grantors and grantees, etc.


It is a vital legal instrument that is ideally authorized by the state or national governments. It assists in ascertaining the truth about a particular subject matter or a written statement or a formal oath. People use affidavits to support their statements or any other personal documents. These are also used in the declarations about ownership of the land or property.

Affidavits may be written in the first or third person; however, it is basically dependent on who drafted the document. It is a perfect document that can be used for judicial proceedings.

Today, due to the advent of internet, it is easy to obtain all types of legal instruments such as an affidavit form or a deed, or a power of attorney form or any other instrument from the online directories. These online legal directories are the perfect answers for all your legal instrument needs. In fact, you can easily find vital accounting, tax related and declaration forms from these directories.

Online legal directories are the ideal resource for legal information, local lawyers, law consultants, law enforcement, litigation, divorce, automobile accidents, solicitor, and law firms around the region. Their database itself serves people and addresses their needs.

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